Cotton is one of the most popular cash crops in the World. It is a Kharif crop that also has a significant presence in India. Cotton is widely used to make clothes and in the textile industry. In India, Gujarat is the largest producer of cotton, producing 95 Lakh cotton. As per the report, cotton covers 26.59 lakh hectares of Gujarat and produces 556.22 kg/hectare.
If we talk about its cultivation, then this Kharif crop needs 6-8 month for maturing. The sowing and harvesting time of cotton varies as per regions and climate conditions. April – May is perfect for cotton’s sown, and for harvesting, December-January is good. To plant this cotton crop, farmers have to require high-temperature soil. The history of cotton is very long, around 5000 BC.
Types of Cotton
According to the strength, length, and structure of its fibre, cotton is classified into three groups.
- Long Staple Cotton
This type of cotton is very long, from 24-27 mm. The fibre is fine, shining, and long. This fibre helps in producing better and superior quality cloth. Long-staple cotton is the most commonly used cotton in India, which available at a low price. This cotton is highly grown in India, accounting for about half of total cotton production. The central producing states of cotton are Punjab, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Haryana, Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat.
- Medium Staple Cotton
This cotton type has a medium length, between 20 – 24 mm. About 44% of the total cotton production is a medium staple. The significant states are Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, Rajasthan and Maharashtra. A medium staple is the second most commonly used fibre in India, and it provides good quality fabrics. Medium staple cotton is available at an affordable price.
- Short Staple Cotton
A short staple is the shortest fibre and inferior cotton. Short-staple cotton has a length of less than 20 mm. It made inferior cloth at a lower cost. Short staple cotton produces about 6% of the total production. The major producers of short-staple cotton are AP, UP, Haryana, Punjab and Haryana.
Cotton Cultivation in India
Following are the steps of cotton cultivation which you should while cotton farming.
- Cotton cultivation starts with the planting process. For this process, farmers prepare the land. The land preparation is done by creating furrows in the soil.
- Early January and late June is the perfect cotton planting season.
- The soil heats rapidly with the help of direct water irrigation and furrow.
- The soil is ready for planting at a temperature of 65 ° C. Once the soil is prepared for planting, farmers can sow seeds in the soil.
- For productive cotton cultivation, the planting step is essential.
- Sometimes this process becomes tricky and complicated. So, to avoid this problem, follow proper precaution and use advanced farm machines.
- For this process, heavy farm machines such as plough, cultivator, land leveller, etc., are ideal.
- The next step is growing. In this process, we see the plant’s growth.
- The seeds germinate from the soil 1-2 weeks after planting. Then, the plant blooms and grows to 2–5 feet tall after 8-10 weeks.
- The flower is self-pollinated and changes from a creamy white to pinkish-red within three days.
- Then, the flower withers and falls, leaving the developing abscess behind. Cotton dwarf develops in about ten weeks.
- Boll Opening
- In the next step, we see the cotton’s boll opening. In this process, cotton pulp opens so that dried white strands can evaporate, clean the fibre, and inflate it.
- By this process, the cotton crop is ready for harvesting. Cotton pulp opens after 50–70 days of blooming.
- The next step is picking. For this process, farmers need advanced farm machines which are used to remove the fibre from the cotton plant.
- The picker or cotton harvesting farm machine is used to harvest cotton, which is called picking.
- For cotton harvesting, early July and late October are ideal seasons.
- The next step is modules. The picker’s cotton is thrown to the ground and compacted with a hydraulic module builder to form a module.
- The modules are left in the area for storage.
- The next step is ginning. In this process, the module is moved to the cotton gin, where the cotton is dried, cleaned. The fibre is mechanically separated from the cotton.
- A cotton gin is a piece of machine which consists of circular saws which separate the raw fibre through ribs.
- Ribs are used to prevent seeds from passing through. The machine carefully separates the fibres from the cotton.
- The next step is cottonseed. After the cottonseed is separated, it is suitable for making cotton oil, cotton flour, hulls and other important things.
- Cotton Fiber
- The last step is cotton fibre. In this step, a raw fibre called lint is pressed into lumps.
- Cotton fibre is used to make clothes, textiles and many more.
- The bales are packed with eight steel straps, tested by experts, wrapped with complete safety, and exported to yards, mills and other countries.
Which Tractor Is Perfect For Cotton Cultivation?
In the tractor industry, many tractor brands are available which manufactured various tractor models for cotton cultivation. But, the Eicher tractor is an ideal choice for cotton cultivation. The Eicher tractor is manufactured with advanced technology, which makes it solid and reliable. Also, the Eicher tractor has the lowest price range. Eicher tractor is equipped with modern and innovative features. Still, Eicher Tractor price is low and affordable for farmers.
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